Frequency, clinical characteristics, risks, and outcomes of Paradoxical upgrading reactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment in tuberculous lymphadenitis

Paradoxical upgrading reactions complicating anti-tuberculosis treatment in tuberculous lymphadenitis

  • Samreen Sarfaraz
  • Sundus Iftikhar
  • Naseem Salahuddin
Keywords: Paradoxical upgrading reactions, Tuberculous lymphadenitis, Anorexia, Caseous necrosis, AFB smear positivity

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics, risks and outcomes of Paradoxical upgrading reactions (PUR) during anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) in superficial tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLA).

Methods: In this nested case-control study, all patients diagnosed with TBLA based on combinations of histopathology, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy, AFB culture, and GeneXpert, between February 2013 and April 2016, were enrolled. Standard ATT was given. Demographics, clinical characteristics, occurrence of PUR and outcome were recorded.

Results: TBLA was diagnosed and treated in 189 patients. PUR developed in 33 (17%), of which 77% developed new inflamed glands, 20.6% had increased size and inflammation of pre-existing glands and 5.9% had superficial chest wall abscesses requiring aspiration. All responded to regular NSAIDs except one, where a steroid course was effective. No change in dose or duration of ATT was required. Presence of anorexia (OR; 95%CI: 2.6; 1.003-6.74), bilateral extensive lymphadenopathy (OR; 95%CI: 2.9; 1.1-7.5) and lymph node specimen positive for AFB (OR; 95%CI: 3.2; 1.04-10.1) were significantly associated with PUR.

Conclusion: PUR is common in TBLA. It responded to NSAIDS and does not need any modification in ATT.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.ICON-Suppl.1711

How to cite this:
Sarfaraz S, Iftikhar S, Salahuddin N. Frequency, clinical characteristics, risks, and outcomes of Paradoxical upgrading reactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment in tuberculous lymphadenitis. Pak J Med Sci. Special Supplement ICON 2020. 2020;36(1):S27-S32.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.ICON-Suppl.1711

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published
2019-11-28