The association between ethnicity, environmental and lifestyle factors and chronic disease in the development of pseudoexfoliation syndrome

  • Saba Ali Arif Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Muhammad Ifraheem Khan
  • Fatimah Nauman
  • Mohammad Ali Arif
Keywords: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, Ethnic groups, Environment, Pakistan, Lifestyle

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the association between ethnicity, environmental factors, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases and pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX).

Methods: A case control study conducted at four major hospitals in Pakistan from January to November 2019, with 241 cases and 294 controls, aged ≥ 40 years, who were administered a questionnaire assessing demographics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases and ethnicity. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to calculate the odds ratio between cases and controls.

Results: PEX was found to be positively associated with ethnicity (p<0.001), time spent outdoors (p<0.001), educational status (p<0.001), asthma (p<0.001), mean age (p<0.001), daily tea intake (p=0.003), weighted maximum temperature (p<0.001) and weighted mean temperature (p=0.004). Poor association was found with weighted latitude (p=0.526) and weighted minimum temperature (p=0.079). Odds ratios for patients with asthma (OR=7.366, regression coefficient=1.993, p<0.001) Pathan ethnicity (OR=1.616, regression coefficient=0.48, p=0.016) and mean weighted temperature (OR=0.907, regression coefficient-0.097, p=0 0.000) were significant in diagnosed cases of PEX.

Conclusion: Individuals with Pathan ethnicity and asthmatics should be made aware of the risk of developing PEX and the importance of periodic screening. Limiting exposure to sunlight and cold and reducing the intake of tea may help in reducing in the chances of developing PEX.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.2.2216

How to cite this:
Arif SA, Khan MI, Nauman F, Arif MA. The association between ethnicity, environmental and lifestyle factors and chronic disease in the development of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(2):---------.   doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.2.2216

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published
2021-01-12
How to Cite
Ali Arif, S., Khan, M. I., Nauman, F., & Arif, M. A. (2021). The association between ethnicity, environmental and lifestyle factors and chronic disease in the development of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(2). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.2.2216
Section
Original Articles