Effect of Cigarette and Shisha smoking on cognitive functions impairment: A cross sectional study
Objectives: Cigarette and Shisha smoking is becoming a common practice in young generation worldwide. Since, this is a growing threat to public health, our study aims to investigate the cognitive function responses of cigarette and Shisha inhalation in adolescents.
Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study comprised three groups, cigarette smoker, Shisha smoker, and nonsmoker control group (each n=25). All the participants were apparently healthy male volunteers aged 21-24 years. Cognitive functions were assessed by employing “Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery”. The cognitive functions outcome variables were response time tasks (attention switching task (AST) and the percentage of correct answers pattern recognition memory (PRM) task.
Results: Cigarette and Shisha smokers exhibited a considerable decline in cognitive performance parameters, AST mean correct latency (p=0.001), AST mean correct latency (congruent) (p=0.001), AST mean correct latency (incongruent) (p=0.001) and AST mean correct latency (switching) (p=0.001) compared to matched control group.
Conclusions: Cigarette and Shisha smokers exhibited significant impairment in their cognitive functions. The present study findings convince that cigarette and Shisha smokers should quit smoking.
How to cite this:
Bashir S, Murtaza G, Meo SA, Al-Masri A. Effect of Cigarette and Shisha smoking on cognitive functions impairment: A cross sectional study. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(5):1042-1047. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.5.2251
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.