Comprehensive Survey of Plagiarism in Iran

  • Mohammad Bagher Rokni Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • Negar Bizhani
  • Farrokh HABIBZADEH
  • Ladan ROKNI
Keywords: Plagiarism, Scientific Misconduct, Publication ethics, Iran


Background and Objective: We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of plagiarism and to shed light on some dark aspects of this issue. The main objectives included to find out the etiology, prevalence, and detection of various forms plagiarism.

Methods: In this Cross-sectional study we used a questionnaire, face-to-face interview, analyzing the present notifications and codes, websites, and literature review. The current study was conducted throughout Iran from 2017-2018. Those associated with scientific journalism, academic staffs, and authors were interviewed or asked to fill out a prepared questionnaire.

Results: Nine hundred seventy nine questionnaires were circulated. Out of this 706 (72.1%) were completed and returned. Those with a master degree were most cooperative in filling out the questionnaires (36.4%); followed by Assistant Professors (29.6%). About 74.1% of respondents, had not participated in any educational workshops on plagiarism (P<0.001) while 10.8% had not heard anything about plagiarism (P<0.001). As regards correct reply as for definition and detecting plagiarism; 91.1%, 40.8%, 48.4% and 57.9% could reply correctly (P<0.001). Forty-one-point one percent of the participants believed that reprimand would be the best punishment. The percentage of plagiarism as per people associated in journal administration, was 22.9%; based on experts’ opinions, it was 30.0%; and based on analysis of some journals published in Iran, it was 25.5%.

Conclusion: We found a noticeable prevalence of plagiarism in Iran. Many factors are involved in this misconduct; most important being the need for academic staff and students to publish e more papers regardless of their quality to meet some of the academic requirements. Considering the high rank of Iran in terms of scientific growth worldwide, it is expected from the regulatory authorities to monitor all aspects of scientific misconducts in medical journalism.


How to cite this:
Rokni MB, Bizhani N, Habibzadeh F, Farhud DD, Mohammadi N, Alizadeh A, et al. Comprehensive Survey of Plagiarism in Iran. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(7):1441-1448. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Rokni, M. B., Bizhani, N., HABIBZADEH, F., DANESHVAR FARHUD, D., MOHAMMADI, N., ALIZADEH, A., & ROKNI, L. (2020). Comprehensive Survey of Plagiarism in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(7).
Original Articles