Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer

  • Kashaf Ilyas
  • Zainab Hafeez NMU & H, Multan
  • Rukhsana Latif
Keywords: Bone mineral density, prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy, bone metabolism markers


Objectives: To access the effects of acute and chronic Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Bone Marrow Density and related bone markers; to compare the bone loss among the patients who terminated GnRH use and control group (not given ADP therapy at all) with the ones with acute or chronic Androgen Deprivation Therapy.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Oncology Department of Nishtar Medical University & Hospital Multan for one year. Bone mineral density of the entire body, 1/3rd distal radius, ultra-distal forearm, femoral neck, and lumbar spine, was measured in 40 patients diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer at baseline for the duration of six months. They were categorized into four groups: (i) acute ADT (less than six months of treatment; (ii) chronic ADT (greater than six months of treatment; (iii) former ADT; and (iv) no ADT (placebo groups). Quantitative measures of bone metabolism marker, including C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) was done.

Results: The cross-sectional analysis showed that BMD dropped significantly in more in patients with former ADT or control groups as compared to chronic ADT. At the 6th month assessment, a significant decline in ultra-distal forearm BMD was demonstrated in patients from both acute and chronic ADT groups (4.05% and 2.54%, P = .001 and .016, respectively). Total body BMD was significantly reduced among those on acute treatment (2.91%, p=0.022). In the former ADT group, a significant increase of BMD was observed in the femoral neck and lumbar spine bones (1.60 % and 2.85%, P = .001 and .0064, respectively). The difference of changes in BMD of the acute and chronic groups was not significant. The levels of PINP and CTX levels were significantly increased in an chronic and acute group than in placebo or former ADT groups.

Conclusion: Chronic and acute ADT users experience similar changes in BMD levels but reversibility of BMD can be achieved on withdrawal of treatment. Similarly disturbed bone metabolism markers come back in range on withdrawal of treatment.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.5.5446

How to cite this:
Ilyas K, Hafeez Z, Latif R. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(5):1175-1182. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.5.5446

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Ilyas, K., Hafeez, Z., & Latif, R. (2022). Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(5). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.5.5446
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