Status of bone health and association of socio-demographic characteristics with Bone Mineral Density in Pakistani Females

Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Bone Mineral Density

  • Saba Tariq University Medical and Dental College, The University of Faisalabad
  • Mukhtiar Baig
  • Sundus Tariq
  • Muhammad Shahzad
Keywords: BMD, osteoporosis prevalence, premenopausal, postmenopausal, Pakistani females


Background & Objective: The “silent thief” of bone osteoporosis is associated with various modifiable factors, identifying these factors is important in decreasing the prevalence of this highly prevalent disease. Therefore, this study was planned to identify these risk factors for osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal Pakistani women.

Methods: A total of 1205 pre and postmenopausal females between the age of 20 to 80 years were selected. Detailed history about the socio-demographic characteristics including age, education, profession, marital and resident status was recorded. Medical and gynecological history was also taken after informed consent Bone health of females was assessed using calcaneal ultrasound bone densitometer. SPSS 22.0 was used to analyze data.

Results: Univariate analysis showed that age (30-39 yrs, and 60-69 yrs), occupation (housewives) and education (secondary and primary education, illiterate) were significantly associated with low bone mass density (LBMD). Multivariate analysis showed that age 30-39 years (OR=0.25 95%CI 0.13 – 0.49), age 40-49 years (OR=0.30 95%CI 0.15 – 0.59), age 50-59 years (OR=0.42 95%CI 0.22 – 0.79), primary education (OR=3.83, 95%CI 2.30 - 6.38) and illiteracy (OR=3.83 95%CI 2.52 – 5.82), were significantly associated with LBMD. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 29.8%, 27.2%, respectively, while 43% of subjects had normal BMD.

Conclusion: It is concluded that within Pakistani population, the prevalence of osteopenia is high even at an early age group and the odds of having LBMD are more in less educated or illiterate women.


How to cite this:
Tariq S, Baig M, Tariq S, Shahzad M. Status of bone health and association of socio-demographic characteristics with Bone Mineral Density in Pakistani Females. Pak J Med Sci. 2019;35(3):812-817. doi:

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