Allium-sativum and bakuchiol combination: A natural alternative to Chlorhexidine for oral infections?

Oral Infections

  • Ayesha Fahim
  • Wan Harun Himratul-Aznita University of Malaya
  • Puteri Shafinaz Abdul-Rahman
Keywords: Allium sativum, Bakuchiol, Candida, Chlorhexidine, Streptococci


Objective: Chlorhexidine mouthrinses are considered a gold standard as an adjunct treatment of oral infections. However, owing to its toxicity, discoloration of tooth surface and the emerging prevalence of drug-resistant species, attention is being given to exploring natural alternatives to the drug.

Methods: The experiment was carried out in Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development (ANCRD), Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan from September 2018 till May 2019. Biofilms and planktonic cells of C. albicans alone and in combination with streptococci were subjected to chlorhexidine, allium sativum and bakuchiol individually and to allium-bakuchiol combination. Kirby-Bauer test, antifungal susceptibility testing, CFU count and drug synergy assessment was done on planktonic cells. Dynamic biofilms were formed to mimic conditions similar to oral cavity and CFU was determined.

Results: MIC of all three agents was higher against mixed species when compared to single species planktonic cells and biofilm. Allium sativum and bakuchiol demonstrated synergistic effects. The decrease in CFU count and minimum biofilm reduction to salivary pellicle caused by allium sativum-bakuchiol was comparable to that of chlorhexidine.

Conclusion: Thus, allium sativum-bakuchiol combination demonstrated antimicrobial effects similar to chlorhexidine against planktonic cells and dynamic biofilm. It could serve as a possible natural, economical alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinses usually recommended in dental clinics. However, in vivo studies are required to determine the correct dosage of these agents.


How to cite this:
Fahim A, Himratul-Aznita WH, Abdul-Rahman PS. Allium-sativum and bakuchiol combination: A natural alternative to Chlorhexidine for oral infections? Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(2):271-275. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Fahim, A., Himratul-Aznita, W. H., & Abdul-Rahman, P. S. (2019). Allium-sativum and bakuchiol combination: A natural alternative to Chlorhexidine for oral infections? Oral Infections. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(2).