An epidemiological study of prevalence and comorbidity of non-clinical Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia symptoms in Public and Private Schools of Pakistan

  • Farzana Ashraf COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus
  • Najma Najam Institute of Applied Psychology, University of The Punjab
Keywords: Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia, Gender, Specific learning disabilities (SLD) symptoms

Abstract

Objective: Dealing with Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia symptoms is a major challenge for teachers and school psychologists while addressing students’ issues. The present study was designed to examine the prevalence and comorbidity of specific learning disabilities (SLD) symptoms such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia in public and private schools of Lahore, Pakistan.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four schools of Lahore from June, 2019 to December 2019. We examined 666 participants (boys= 384, girls= 282) from two public (n=409) and two private (n=257) schools of Lahore with a mean age of 13 years (SD±1.44). Participants were assessed on Learning Disabilities Checklist (LDC) along with a demographic sheet. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and inferential analyses of Chi Square test of association and Cohen’s Kappa by using SPSS version 24.

Results: Findings indicated that 39% participants showed SLD symptoms, 33% dyslexia, 48% dysgraphia and 45% dyscalculia symptoms. Significant co-morbidities were seen, such as 30% for dyslexia and dysgraphia symptoms, dyslexia and dyscalculia 26% and dysgraphia and dyscalculia as 36%. Variations in SLD, dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia symptoms were also seen across gender and schools with significant higher prevalence in public schools.

Conclusion: High prevalence of SLD symptoms and comorbidity in students was found which is alarming, particularly in public sector schools in Pakistan. SLD and dyslexia were higher for boys, whereas girls scored high on dysgraphia and dyscalculia. Therefore, there is great need of introducing screening measure of assessment of SLD and management strategies to deal with these issues.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.7.2486

How to cite this:
Ashraf F, Najam N. An epidemiological study of prevalence and comorbidity of non-clinical Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia symptoms in Public and Private Schools of Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(7):1659-1663.
doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.7.2486

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published
2020-10-19
How to Cite
Ashraf, F., & Najam, N. (2020). An epidemiological study of prevalence and comorbidity of non-clinical Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia symptoms in Public and Private Schools of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(7). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.7.2486
Section
Original Articles