Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy; A study from a rural population of Sindh, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Kamran Fazaia Ruth Pfao Medical College
  • Asher Fawwad
  • Syed Iftikhar Haider
  • Tahir Hussain
  • Jameel Ahmed
Keywords: Gastritis, Hiatal hernia, Indications, Findings


Objective: To discuss common indications and findings on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as to correlate these findings with alarm symptoms in the rural population of Gadap town, Sindh.

Methods: This was a retrospective study on 1288 patients conducted in the medical ward of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University. Patients’ demographics and other data related to the procedure were recovered from patients’ records. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Ratio of male and female patients was approximately 1:1. Majority of the patients were young, and most procedures were done as outpatients without the requirement of conscious sedation. Epigastric pain was the primary indication for upper GI endoscopy (62.6%). One third of the procedures performed did not report any pathological finding. Probability of a positive finding was more likely if a patient presented with dysphagia, heart-burn, hematemesis, vomiting, or for screening endoscopy (for varices). Patients who were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, esophageal varices or esophageal growth/ ulcer had reported one or more alarm symptoms in their history.

Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a useful test to diagnose disorders of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. However, it is an expensive procedure and therefore referring physicians should keep appropriate clinical indication and ethical considerations in mind before recommending such an investigation to their patients.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.1.3297

How to cite this:
Kamran M, Fawwad A, Haider SI, Hussain T, Ahmed J. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy; A study from a rural population of Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(1):9-14. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.1.3297

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Kamran, M., Fawwad, A., Haider, S. I., Hussain, T., & Ahmed, J. (2020). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy; A study from a rural population of Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.1.3297

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