Noninvasive exploration of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy by heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis in Type 2 Diabetic patients
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac autonomic neuropathy and its association with risk factors among patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
Methods: The present case-control study was conducted at Department of Medicine, Civil Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan during the period September` 2016 to May` 2017. After taking informed consent, subjects from both genders, 72 healthy controls and 72 clinically diagnosed T2DM diabetic patients, age between 30-65 years were selected by non-probability sampling technique. After taking medical history and demographics, Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) was identified by using Ewing`s cardiac autonomic reflex tests (CARTs) and association of risk factors was also investigated.
Results: Severe CAN was identified in 13.9% of T2DM patients while in none of the healthy controls. HR response to deep breathing test was most sensitive (sensitivity= 90%) among all tests. The most common symptoms were Numbness (75.9%) and constipation (69%), resting heart rate and diabetes duration was significantly associated with DCAN.
Conclusions: CAN was highly prevalent in diabetic population that may lead to nephropathy and retinopathy in future. It is highly recommended to use sensitive and simple CARTs in clinics for early detection and early treatment of CAN.
How to cite this:
Naz T, Memon NN, Afzal K, Shakir A. Noninvasive exploration of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy by heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis in Type 2 Diabetic patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(4):1020-1024. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.4.3675
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