Frequency of Vitamin-D deficiency in children with Urinary tract infection: A descriptive cross-sectional study

  • Saba Qadir LUMHS Jamshoro
  • Shazia Memon LUMHS Jamshoro
  • Muhammad Nadeem Chohan LUMHS Jamshoro
  • Yasmeen Memon Isra Medical University Hyderabad
Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, Hypocalcemia, Vitamin D deficiency, Children. Urine culture and sensitivity


Objective: To determine Vitamin-D status in children with urinary tract infection.

Methods: A Cross-sectional study was done at Pediatric Department, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, from July 2019 to March 2020. A total of 172 children of either gender from 2 to 60 months of age with confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI) (having positive urine C/S report) were included in the study. The child who received antibiotics 48 hours prior or already on immunosuppressive drugs and steroids from previous health record or by taking clinically relevant history), children with CKD on vitamin-D supplementation, and known case of Vitamin-D deficiency were also excluded from the study. All study participants were evaluated for vitamin-D level by high performance liquid chromatography. Urine sample was collected for C/S and 1 cc venous blood was taken for Vitamin D status (ng/ml). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) and stratification was calculated for age, duration of urinary tract infection and vitamin-D level. Post stratification chi-square test was applied for all categorical variables at 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-value ≤0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The average age of the patients was 41.51±18.34 months. There were 130 (75.58%) females and 40 (23.25%) males. Most common complaint of the children was fever 150 (87.21%). Vomiting was present in 31 (18.02%), abdominal pain 22 (12.79%) and dysuria in 15 (8.72%) children. A total of 129 (75%) children had pyelonephritis and 15 (25%) had cystitis. (Frequency of vitamin-D deficiency in children with diagnosed UTI was 45.93% (79/172). Mild vitamin D deficiency was present in 42 (53.16%) children, while moderate deficiency in 55 (69.62%) children. E. Coli was the most common pathogen in both mild and moderate vitamin D deficiency i.e., 20 (47.61) and 31 (56.36%) respectively.

Conclusion: The frequency of urinary tract infection is more common in children having vitamin D deficiency.


How to cite this:
Qadir S, Memon S, Chohan MN, Memon Y. Frequency of Vitamin-D deficiency in children with Urinary tract infection: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(4):1058-1062. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Qadir, S., Memon, S., Chohan, M., & Memon, Y. (2021). Frequency of Vitamin-D deficiency in children with Urinary tract infection: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(4).
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