Renal artery embolization for spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with acquired cystic kidney disease: A 20-year single-center experience
Objectives: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization for controlling spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD).
Methods: This retrospective study included 18 patients with ACKD (M:F=13:5; mean age, 56 years) who underwent renal artery embolization to control spontaneous hemorrhage between January 2001 and September 2020. The underlying etiology and clinical presentations were reviewed and previous computed tomography (CT) findings were analyzed. Furthermore, angiographic and embolization details, technical and clinical successes, and complications were assessed.
Results: Subcapsular, perirenal, and pararenal hematomas were observed on CT scans for all patients. Contrast extravasation was observed in 15 / 17 patients (88%) on contrast-enhanced CT scans. Angiography showed active bleeding in 14 patients (78%; contrast extravasation [n=6], pseudoaneurysm [n=3], and both [n=5]), suspicious bleeding in 1 (5%), and no bleeding in 3 (17%). The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 94% (17/18), respectively. Total and partial embolization was performed in 14 (78%) and 4 (22%) cases, respectively. Subsequent surgical nephrectomy was required for one patient with clinical failure due to recurrent bleeding despite total embolization. Procedure-related complications included mild post-embolization syndrome in one patient and contrast-induced nephropathy in five patients (28%) without long-term complications.
Conclusions: Renal artery embolization is safe and effective for controlling spontaneous renal hemorrhage in patients with ACKD.
How to cite this:
Chen CS, Ahn H, Shin JH, Li HL, Kim JW, Ibrahim A, et al. Renal artery embolization for spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with acquired cystic kidney disease: A 20-year single-center experience. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(4):1111-1117. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.4.3999
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