Characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis
Meta Analysis/Original Research
Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly targets the respiratory system. However, recent studies also show its role in causing gastrointestinal hemorrhage, potentially affecting morbidity and mortality-related outcomes of the patients. There is still no consensus on the risk factors, characteristics, and the overall outcome of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients. The main aim of this study was to summarize current evidence, assessing risk factors that promote the onset of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients, and to compare the incidences of the different sites of gastrointestinal lesions, the events of abdominal pain, diarrhea, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality between COVID-19 patients with or without gastrointestinal bleeding.
Methods: A search of the academic literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines across five databases i.e., Web of Science, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus, and MEDLINE. A random-effect meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the influence of the history of drugs consumption, gastrointestinal bleeding, the different incidence of gastrointestinal lesions, events of abdominal pain, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality between COVID-19 patients with/without gastrointestinal bleeding.
Results: Out of 458 studies, three eligible studies with 663 participants (mean age: 69.7 ± 4.3 years) were included. A meta-analysis showed a medium-to-large influence of the history of gastrointestinal bleeding (Hedge’s g: 1.01) and anticoagulant drug consumption (g: 0.33) on the gastrointestinal bleeding in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers was higher as compared to esophagitis (37.5% versus 9.9%).
Conclusions: The study provides preliminary evidence regarding the risk factors associated with the onset of gastrointestinal hemorrhage among COVID-19 patients. The study also outlines the characteristics and the outcomes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients.
How to cite this:
Chen J, Hang Y. Characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(5):1524-1531. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4351
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