Etiology and outcomes of new onset seizure in adult patients: A clinical experience from emergency department of a tertiary care center
Objectives: To identify the etiology and outcomes of new onset seizure in adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED), to improve knowledge among healthcare providers regarding diagnosis and hence improve the outcomes.
Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study conducted at the Emergency Department of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Adult patients (18 years and above), presented to the ED from January 01, 2019 to June 30, 2020, with new onset seizure were included consecutively. Descriptive data on patient demographics, seizure types, investigations performed, final diagnosis and disposition were collected retrospectively from patient’s file and electronic record. Etiologies of seizure were classified as structural (metabolic, trauma, infection), genetic or idiopathic. The immediate outcomes were reported as hospitalization or discharge from the ED.
Results: In total 198 patients with new onset seizure were included. Majority of the patients were found in middle age group i.e., 35 to 65 years (44.4%). Gender distribution showed slightly higher percentage of females (55.1%). Generalized tonic clonic seizures were found to be the most common type of seizures (74.2%), followed by generalized tonic (12.1%) and focal onset aware seizures (7.5%). Out of total patients no cause was identified in eight patients (4%), whereas in total confirmed causes of new onset seizures, structural lesions of brain were found to be the most common cause (89.6%%), including neurological (23.6%), infectious (4.2%), systemic (13%), metabolic (7%) and toxicological (4%) causes respectively.
Conclusion: This study explores the various etiologies of new onset seizures in adult patients presenting to the ED. The study emphasizes the need for a local guideline for the investigation of new onset seizures in adult patients that would direct emergency physicians in respect of appropriate management, thus to ensure better quality of patient care and outcomes.
How to cite this:
Ali N, Dharamshi HA, Mustahsan S, Noorani S. Etiology and outcomes of new onset seizure in adult patients: A clinical experience from emergency department of a tertiary care center. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(5):1382-1388. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.5.4411
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