Dietary Intake patterns in women with GDM and Non-GDM: A comparative study

  • Shabnam Nadeem Karachi Medical &Dental College / Abbasi Shaheed Hospital
  • Aisha Khatoon
  • Shaista Rashid
  • Fauzia Ali
Keywords: Dietary intake patterns, Pregnancy, Tertiary care hospital, GDM, Non-GDM


Objectives: The study aimed to determine dietary Intake patterns in women with GDM and Non-GDM, a comparative study in a tertiary care hospital, Pakistan.

Methods: This comparative cross sectional study was conducted through questionnaire spread over a period of six months of pregnant women visiting to Abbasi Shaheed Hospital for ante-natal visit having 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. With the written consent of the participants dietary intake patterns were assessed in GDM & Non-GDM subjects by a three day 24 hours’ recalls and food frequency questionnaire. A 24-hour dietary recall chart is a dietary assessment tool in which participants were asked to recall all food and drink they have consumed in the last 24 hours. The FFQ (food frequency questionnaire) provide a list of foods and participants were asked how often they eat each item on the list. This FFQ has 70 food items. The food frequency was reported as never, per year, per month, once a week, once and a day. The reported intake of food was converted into nutrients intake (carbohydrate, protein, fat) which was calculated by reported intake frequency of each food multiplied by reported portion size and its respective nutrient composition, summing over all foods by a trained Nutritionist.

Results: A total of 75 participants with GDM, and 75 with Non-GDM were enrolled in this study over a period of six months. It was observed that dietary intake patterns have a significant association with GDM. Those who consume carbohydrate mainly containing diet have likely to have GDM. It has been seen that those who have family history of diabetes are more likely to have GDM. Family dietary patterns can affect risk of GDM. Our study has shown that timings of meals did not find have any significant association with GDM.

Conclusion: Dietary patterns strongly influence the risk of GDM. The most contributing factors to risk of GDM are higher intake of carbohydrate rich diet and lesser consumption of fruits and vegetables.


How to cite this:
Nadeem S, Khatoon A, Rashid S, Ali F. Dietary Intake patterns in women with GDM and Non-GDM: A comparative study. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(7):1760-1765. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Nadeem, S., Khatoon, A., Rashid, S., & Ali, F. (2022). Dietary Intake patterns in women with GDM and Non-GDM: A comparative study. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(7).
Original Articles