Breast surgery super-specialization: Impact on advanced surgical training and research

  • Danish Ali Aga Khan University Hospital
  • Sana Zeeshan Aga Khan University
  • Nifasat Farooqi
  • Lubna Vohra Aga Khan University
Keywords: Breast Surgery, Breast Surgery Fellowship, Super-specialization, Fellowship, CPSP, FCPS


The earliest records of breast cancer (BC) date back to 3,000 - 2,500 B.C., ever since multiple curative options have been explored. First known wide margin excision was performed around 1st Century AD and a prototype of the modern-day BC surgery, Halsted radical mastectomy, was performed in the 20th Century. BC is the most common cancer in Pakistan accounting for up to 14.5% of the total cancer incidences. Accredited breast surgery fellowships were established in the UK and USA in 2002 and 2003, respectively. In Pakistan, the movement was delayed and the two-year College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) accredited breast surgery fellowship program started in 2019. The increasing annual incidence and changes in demands have led to an increased percentage of General Surgery graduates taking up specialty training. PubMed search from 1990 to 2021 showed a rising trend in the number of breast cancer publications from Pakistan; from almost no papers before 1990 to 615 between 2012 to 2021. This remarkable surge in BC-related research can be explained by the commencement of fellowship programs in breast surgery and related fields. An increase in specialist training will yield better results in the management of patients, improve clinical trials and help produce more meaningful publications from the country.


How to cite this:
Ali D, Zeeshan S, Farooqi N, Vohra L. Breast surgery super-specialization: Impact on advanced surgical training and research. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(8):2345-2349. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Ali, D., Zeeshan, S., Farooqi, N., & Vohra, L. (2022). Breast surgery super-specialization: Impact on advanced surgical training and research. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(8).