Metformin versus sodium glucose co-transporters inhibitors as first-line for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis
There is growing evidence of prescribing sodium glucose co-transporters-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2) to patients with/at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as first-line (instead of metformin). This is the first meta-analysis to compare SGLT-2 inhibitors regarding the same. We aimed to compare SGLT-2 inhibitors and metformin regarding heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, and ischemic stroke. We systematically searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant articles from the first article up to August 2022. The following keywords were used: Metformin, Salt glucose co-transporters inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and first-line. The retrieved data were exported to an excel sheet detailing the author’s names, the country of origin of the study, the number of patients and control subjects, the study duration, and the total number of events in the interventional and exercise groups.
Out of 108 articles screened, only three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, a databased study, and two cohorts with 10309 events and 86487 patients. The present meta-analysis showed that SGLT-2 inhibitors had lower rates of heart failure (odd ratio, 1.51, 95% CI, 1.10-2.08) and myocardial infarction (odd ratio, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.08-1.96) than metformin with a similar rate of stroke (odd ratio, 1.03, 95% CI, 0.66-1.61). Significant heterogeneity was observed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors-2 as first-line therapy showed a lower heart failure and myocardial infarction compared to metformin. No significant difference was found between the two drugs regarding ischemic stroke. Further larger studies comparing the adverse event are needed.
How to cite this: Alatawi AM. Metformin versus sodium glucose co-transporters inhibitors as first-line for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2024;40(1):209-213. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.1.6982
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