The importance of Vitamin-D and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio for Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Ahmet Evlice Assoc Prof. Dr.
  • Zeynep Selcan Şanlı Dr.
  • Pınar Bengi Boz
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Ischemia, Vitamin D, Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio


Objective: Ischemia and inflammation play a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Plasma neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and 25- hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) were used as a biomarker for inflammation and atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate a link between NLR, vitamin D and ischemia in AD.

Methods: The subjects with AD and control groups were enrolled to this retrospective study between 2017-2022 at Cukurova University Hospital. The cognitive assessment (MMSE), and blood tests (NLR, vitamin D) were collected from all subjects. In first part of the study, AD (n:132) and the control group (n:38) were compared. In second part of the study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for evaluating ischemic lesions with scoring method of Fazekas. The control group (n:38) and AD subjects with mild ischemic lesions (Fazekas-1 and Fazekas-2) (n:64) were excluded. AD subjects with severe ischemic lesions (Fazekas-3) (n:34) and without ischemic lesions (Fazekas-0) (n:34) were compared again. SPSS 20.0 was used for all analyses. The threshold for statistical significance was set at 0.05.

Results: In the first part of the study, 132 AD patients (69 female and 63 male; mean age 70.83±9.35 (49-87) and age-matched 38 controls were compared. The mean NLR in AD [2.96±2.46 (1.17-19.43)] was higher than the control group [1.9±0.66 (0.9-3.56)] (p=0.005). In the second part of the study, the mean Vitamin D of Fazekas-3 AD group [16.15±9.64 (4.7-35)] was lower than Fazekas-0 AD group [16.27±6.81(4.6-29.7)] (p=0.024).

Conclusion: NLR was higher in AD while there was no difference between the Fazekas-0 and Fazekas-3 AD groups. Vitamin D was lower in the Fazekas-3 AD group. These data suggested that NLR increased independently of ischemia in AD. Also vitamin D deficiency could trigger ischemia in AD.


How to cite this: Evlice A, Sanli ZS, Boz PB. The importance of Vitamin-D and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio for Alzheimer’s Disease. Pak J Med Sci. 2023;39(3):799-803. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Evlice, A., Şanlı, Z. S., & Boz, P. B. (2023). The importance of Vitamin-D and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio for Alzheimer’s Disease. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(3).
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